The History of the Kom

This account of the Koms' history was related to me in 1992 by Qâzi Ghulâm Ullâh and Vakil Muhammad Kabir, in the village of Urtsun, Chitral District, Pâkistân. It agrees with other accounts that I have heard numerous times since 1967.

Qâzi (‘Judge') Ghulâm Ullâh is recognized as the leading intellectual among the Kom. As well as being fully learned in Islamic law, he is an accomplished linguist, having written an extensive but unpublished grammar of his native language. He was my teacher and mentor throughout my initial two years in Nuristân.

Vakil (‘Representative') Muhammad Kabir is a leading politician of the Kom, and is recognized by his people as their best political orator. His hilarious wit and biting multiple entendres make him an irresistable opponent in political debate, and it is largely to him that I owe my understanding of politics in the region.



`koma˜ sta ^tårix
related by
Qâzi Ghulâm Ullâh
and
Vakil Muhammad Kabir
to
Richard F. Strand

The Koms' History
related by
Qâzi Ghulâm Ullâh
and
Vakil Muhammad Kabir
to
Richard F. Strand

[GU] âska ^pâliuk âźor gija_kunâsi o! âska ^imo sta mânša, ^â·ki, ^qândor poar ste oastâa suara, ^â·kiste ^qândor poar ste âćti `gek kum, `kobul oastâa, `kobul ste âćti â·kiste, ´kå·pi·så oastâa_^â·kiste âćti, ^â·ki, ^kåmå oastâa ^â·kiste `gek kum âćti, ^kunař oastâa, ^â·kiste, ^â·kü ina, ^šavâ oastâa, suara, ^â·kiste `ca âćti, ^kâmnili, `nâ˜i, ^kâmna... [GU] Paliuk's son Aźor used to say that our people came from Kandahâr, there. From Kandahâr they kept coming to Kâbul, and from Kâbul they came to Kâpisâ. Then they came there to Kâmâ. Then they kept coming to Kunar. Then they came right there, to Sheva. Then they came up to Kamnili, no, Kâmna...
[RS] ^kâmnile. [RS] Kâmnile [Kom Lake].
[GU] ^kâmnile, to, oastâa. suara ... [GU] to Kom Lake, they came. Then ...
[RS] âska ^ševâ sta `kâa viri_âsa? [RS] What was that Sheva story you told me?
[GU] ^šavâ de i·a, ^imo viri, `Siavo. âsa_kuna. [GU] Sheva in our language is called Siavo.
[RS] `Siavo. `Siavo `kâa ŋe_kunta? [RS] Siavo. What do they say Siavo for?
[GU] `Siavo, ina `oa ^âta přeti i·a `e calâa ^bâra kSeati, `büma `Siana `nâ˜i â? `oa. i·a ^gâloa. â, ^nâni `âta přeti, `ku·oa_âta přeti `Siati ^bâra kSeati, ^â·kiste ^drušavo buna. `oala_oala ^drušavo buna. ^kâtavo buna `oala. `poacol. ^i·e ŋe `Siavo_kunta. `Siavo `gek_kti i·a ^šavâ ŋe, `â·sal, `Siavo_âsa ´nuristoni viri ^i·e sta `nom `Siavo_âsa. `Siavo. suara. ^kunař di `gek_kti `ku noř i·a ´nuristoni viri_âsa_kuna. `ku noř_âsa. ^â·kiste ^i·a, ^pârea, gul ke˜, `strak, ^kunař_kunta. [GU] Siavo is a place where the water runs in and out to wear away part of the earth, right? The water, uh, river runs in, the waves lap in and out and wear it away, until it becomes a cave, a large cave. It becomes a large undercut cave in the river bank. That's what they call a Siavo. Thus Siavo was originally the word for Sheva in the Nuristâni language. Likewise Kunar in the Nuristâni language was ku noř [‘Olive Stream'], he [Paliuk Azor] says. Now they call the whole valley Kunar.
suara_^â·kiste `ca_âćti ^kâmnile to ste `ca âćti cae˜ ... So then they came up from Kom Lake and ...
[RS] ^kâmnile `kor_âsi? [RS] Where was Kom Lake?
[GU] ^câŋasarâa `niruku ^DânDunâ `nâ_kunta_â? `okuNi viri strak. ^DânDunâ. ^Sâŋe ^nila_âso mma ^â·ki `oa_âso mma. `strak `drea `oa ^bâra kSoa˜_gea·sa. [GU] A little ways down from Chagan Sarâi, you know, what they call Danduna? In Pushto now [it's called] DanDuna. I understand that formerly there was a lake there; there was water there. Later on the water got drained out.
^â·küste `gek kum `ca âćti, âmki `gul, i·a ^kunař ninša eli gula˜, to ^kuiu bo ^kuiu bo ^âmkioa˜ ^â·kü, `bistâa ^eCuk biti ^â·küste ^mânšoa˜ meS ^kuiu bo âmna. ^kâla, `Suc, kti, ^âmna, `e to˜ ste `e to˜, `e to˜ ste `e to˜ `gek_kti, `giti `ca âćti, ^dåŋgom, `gul, `nâ_âsa_â? ^â·ki bistâa ^dåŋgom di `do gřom ^imo mânšoa˜ sta `nom_âsa âska `drea, ^tâGir bi·sa ^dâŋgâm `okuNia˜ ^tâGir kâřa·sa. `ca âćti ^â·kü, ^bårgom, ´nišâgom, `strak kunta âmki ^bârgřom je ^niše˜ gřom âi âmki `di imo mânša ... Then they kept coming up the Kunar Valley and the side valleys and stayed here and there for a while, and had fights and wars with the people, and they kept coming up from place to place until they came to Dângâm. Your know that valley? They stayed there. Our people's name for Dângâm is do gřom ['Mountain Community']. Later the Afghâns changed the name to Dângâm. Then they came up there to Bârgâm and Nishagâm, as they're now called. But again, our people [called them] bârgřom and niše˜ gřom.
[RS] ^niše˜ gřom? [RS] niše˜ gřom?
[GU] ^niše˜ gřom ou˜. `je˜ gřom. `ou˜. `je˜ gřom. [GU] niše˜ gřom: 'Sitting-Down Community'. Yes, ‘Sitting-Down Community'.
[K] ^Sâŋe bo ^âni bâlla âska ca. [K] That was a long time ago; it must have been here.
[GU] `ou˜. ^niše˜ gřom âi ^âmki `gek kum `ca âćti cae˜, ina ^imo sta `gul, to oastâa, ^gita sta viri ^âska vâllânâsi. [GU] Yes, so they're in Nishe˜ grom. Then they kept coming up, and they arrived in our country. That's what he used to tell us.
suara, ^âmki, `eTa_âsa ^i·âar poar ste oastâa ^âmna `kâa, di bo ^âmki kâca âi. ^âmki, ^imo mânša `eTa, ^řâmgal poar oastâa. ^řâmgal, ^â·ki di, ^řâmgal, `e to˜ ^imo mânšoa˜ sta `to˜, ^kum·piT kunta. And then, there were some who came from the other way, whatever happened and whoever they were. They were some of our people, and they came to Willow Valley. In Willow Valley there's a place, our people's place, which they call kumpiT [‘Winepress Ridge'].
[K] `e to˜ ^kulem_âsa `nâ˜i â? [K] That's a place in Kulem, isn't it?
[GU] ^kum·piT. [GU] Winepress Ridge.
[RS] ^kum·piT `kor_âsa. [RS] Where's Winepress Ridge?
[GU] ^kum·piT, ^řâmgal. [GU] Winepress Ridge, in Willow Valley.
[RS] ^řâmgal mi_âsa_â? `nâ˜i. `ktivi poar. [RS] Right in Willow Valley, or on the Ktivi side?
[GU] ^řâmgal. ^řâmgal. ^kum·piT_âsa. [GU] In Willow Valley. In Willow Valley, is where Winepress Ridge is.
^â·küste `gek, `gek_kti âćti ca ^ina_âar, ^bâra_âćti ^âmna, ^ćâňu poar ^âmna, ^kâmaTol poar, `gek_kum âćti ^â·ki oastâa ^â·küste ^kâmaTol ste, `Suc_kti ^âmkioa˜, ^kâla kti, ^ćâňu vâňia˜ meS ^kâla bi·sa. ^ćâňu vâňia˜ ^âtam u teati, `dru_kâřastâa. `cütke˜ ^â·kiste ^âmki, ^â·küste `vik vik giti ^pâta bi ^břâkom mânša `suanti, ^lâka=kâřastâa, `pšol, `kâca ^mânša `veň âska `gřom_to `veň `pšol `io pšola˜ ^Sâřoa˜ meS âsâ bo ^âmki `šü˜ vo ^pâta bistâi! o. `suara `sunti `se jukuřpârmaňoa˜, ^â·ki, ^kâmaTol, âmki ^ćâňu vâňi âćti, ^řâdor âćti, ^âtam oaźti ^âmki `tin piati, `kor `jâ·šân, âsa, ^âmkioa˜ sta ^mišik_âsa. ^kâNa, kti, `tin piati ina ^gicea noT_âsala_â? `ketta noT_âsa bo ^pâřuc_vik, `ea âgařa `noT_kti ^gâtra bi sta, `sunti `pSuti guâlla bo âska ^bâria ^bida biti `giti ^âmki ^vilâastâa `strak, `sunti `pSuistâa `âćaň kti, ^pâsü, `sü to `pe e to˜_âsa âska ^âštre to ^Dâkara=to˜. ^pâsü `ve âćti ^âta_âćti ^âmkioa˜ ^â·kiste, `pSuti gu to˜_to ste˜, ^pâpali☠giti ^jâňistâa âmki `sunti ^lâka kâřastâa âmki. ^lâka, `dre ^âmki ^bâra u tina sta `kâca, `pšol, âsâ bo ^Sâřoa˜ meS ^âmki mânšoa˜, ^â·küste ^âmki ^câlti ^â·ki ste âćti, ^pâpuřuk poar bâra_âćti, ca, `ni âćti ^sâskü˜ jenastâa. ^sâskü˜ ste âćti ^â·küste, `kombřom oastâa. Then they gradually came out on this side by Ćâňu, by Kom Cliff, and arrived there. Then from Kom Cliff they had a war, a fight; there was a war with the Ćâňu people. The Ćâňu people surrounded and defeated them. Stealthfully, then, [they came,] and they fought each other, and everybody who was left in the village was wiped out, but whatever people were here and there in the mountain stables outside the village with their flocks remained alive. But everyone there in Kom Cliff, including the women and children, were wiped out. The Ćâňu people came at night and attacked, after they [the Kom] had been drinking wine; it was some festival; it was their party. They had a feast and had been drinking wine. It might have been the gichei [new year's] dance, or whichever dance it was; they had been dancing until morning for a week, and they were tired and when they all had gone to sleep, that bâri [slave caste] informer went and told them [the Ćâňu people] that they all had gone to sleep, come now. There was a way across a bridge on the cliff face, a dangerous place, After they had gone to sleep they came across the bridge, attacked, and killed them. They wiped them all out. Later those who had stayed outside --whoever was in the stables -- those people migrated then with their flocks, coming out via Papuruk, and came down and stopped in Sâskü˜. Then from Sâskü˜ they came to Kom Community.
[RS] `kombřom ^âska vel to ^jâša bâlla. [RS] At that time in Kom Community there must have been Jâshis.
[GU] ^jâša_âsi_kunta. ^â·kü nima `sunti ^jâša_âsâ mma âmki ^â·küste ... [GU] They say that there were Jâshis. I understand that from there on downriver they were all Jâshis; then ...
[K] ^mânaři `ü viati ^vâllâ to˜_to ^â·kü mi jenastâi. [K] They [the Kom] were just sitting right there at the discussion, hitting their walking sticks on the ground.
[GU] `ou˜ ^â·ki `kombřom âćti ^â·ki `niň, `nirgřom kuiu, ^â·ki, i·a, `kâa nom_âsa? [GU] Yes, when they came to Kom Community, down somewhere in the Lower Community, what's the name, there?
[K] ^bâZia_âsa. ^bâZia_âsa_o! [K] It's Dancing Ground. It's Dancing Ground!
[GU] ^bâZia. ^bâZia vücpü vik di `âćti ^â·ki jenastâa, ^â·kiste, eTa ^mânša oasâ kti gija_kâřâlla bo ^â·ki e ^purduk_âso mma. eTa^ mânša ^vico oastâa â·kü, ^bâZia ^pârea bistâa kti gija_kâřâlla bo, âska ^gita sta ... [GU] Dancing Ground. They came up to Dancing Ground and sat down around it there. Then, when they said, "Some men have come," I understand there was an old man there. When they said, "Some guest people have come; they've filled up Dancing Ground there," such ...
[K] `kâa sta `koř mânša âi? [K] What kind of men are they?
[GU] âska ^purduka, ^kâňa_âsa `nâ˜i â? [GU] The old man is blind, right?
[K] `ou˜. `kâa_`koř mânša âi. [K] Yes. What kind of men are they?
[GU] ea `juk vo_âso mma. [GU] I understand he had a daughter.
^âska, `kâa kunta ko `giti `o˜š_kti `âćaň â? _kâřastâa. He told them, "Go look and see what they're doing."
^â·küste ^âmkioa˜ ^gija_kâřa·sâ âmki, ^eTa de ^mânaři kâSanta ^eTa, `dru˜ piT kâSanta ^eTa `drua˜ i·poanta ^eTa, `suara, `koN i·poanta ^eTa `lućik ni_âšanta ^eTa `kâa_kunta ^viri vâllânta `jenta `u tianta `vřâjü_kunta; Then they said, "Some of them are whittling their walking sticks; some are whittling their bows; some are fixing their bows; some are fixing their arrows; some are sticking points on their arrows; some are doing whatever, talking and sitting down and standing up and yelling."
âmki=`gek_kti cae˜, ^gija_kâřâlla bo, `uto ^gita_âsa bo ^âmki `kom âi, suara ^âmkioa˜ meS ^imo ^tâŋa˜ `nâ bâmmiš, ^câlaň kti gija_kâřastâa ^jâšaa˜_to âskea. `emmo, âni ste ^câlti `emmo. ´hijarat kummo. ^câlammo âni ste. ^câlaň kti gija_kâřastâa_^âmu de, `jüs meS ^kâňa_âsa, ^pâta bi·sa. âmki `suara mânša, ^řâdor ^câlti gustâa jâša. `kombřom, `ćuňi kti. As soon as they said that, the old man said to the Jâshis, "Son of a bitch, if that's the case, they're Kom. We can't stand up to them. Move away! Let's go! Let's run away from this place. Let's seek refuge. Let's migrate from here! Move away!" But he himself remained there with his daughter because he was blind. At night the rest of the Jâshis fled away, leaving Kom Community empty.
^âmki `guâlla bo ^â·küste, ^mânša `nâ âćanta `tuare˜ `nâ âćanta imo to ina ^břâkom sta ^mânša `nâ âćanta âmki ^mânša, `ca guâlla. ^břâkom. ^ina `kâa viri_âsa ^imo âćti ^âni, ^pâviri oa·samiš ^imo to `tuare˜ `nâ âćanta. After they went the Kom thought, "The people aren't coming. The people of the village aren't coming to see us." So they went up into the town to find out what was going on, thinking, "What's this? We've come here to parley, and they're not coming near."
`ca enta bo `gřom `ćuňi gřom_âsa ^â·ki, e ^purduk vâňi·sa âska ^purduk, vâňi to ^â·kiste âska, ^mânša_âsi_kâřa to ^mânša_âsi guâ. ^câliâ. `šoa, vâňati, ^câlti `guâ suara, ^âmnoa˜_to ^imo, ^kâla kti suara `koT `pe tâŋala de `nâ_âsa, kti, ^câliâ kti gija_kâřa·sa. When they go up they find that it's an empty village. They saw an old man, and when they saw him he said, "There were people here; there were people, but they went away. They moved away. They saw you and moved on, because they couldn't fight you; they didn't have the strength to beat you. So they moved away."
^â·küste, ^â·kü `kombřom, `ü_přâsinastâa. âska ^purduk, e `jü vo_âso mma, ^âska âmna ^kâňa dârea˜ `štri_kâři·sa. ^kâňa dârea˜ `štri kti ^â·küste ^â·ki `kombřom `ü_přâsiati, âmki ^jâšaa˜ sta ^pâta bi gul di, ^âmna, ^pâcogul, ^âmna di `vř☠ŋutastâa, ^kâmu vř☠ŋutastâa, ^âkiste ^binořm bulâ `vâre kâca inâar, ^kâTokšol `vř☠ŋutastâa `pitikal bulâ ... So then the Kom settled down in Kom Community. The old man had a daughter, I hear, and she was made wife by Blind Man's Boys. Blind Man's Boys made her their wife and they settled down there in Kom Community, and the remaining valleys of the Jâshis, in the outlying areas, were also taken from them; Kâmu was taken from them; then Binio Community and other places here and there like KâTok's Stable were taken from them, and for instance Piti Valley ...
[K] `pitikal ^bâruku, ^kâTokšol. [K] KâTok's Stable, a little way out from Piti Valley.
[GU] ^kâTokšol. `ou˜. ^kâTokšol. [GU] KâTok's Stable, yes, KâTok's Stable.
[RS] ^âska di ^jâšaa˜ sta_âsi â? [RS] Was that the Jâshi's also?
[GU] ^jâšaa˜ sta_âsi. `ou˜, ^âta_Tikoaň ^â·kü `gřom âi ^jâšaa˜ sta ... [GU] That was the Jâshi's. All the way into the valley there were Jâshi villages there.
[K] `[xx]břom ^pâ˜ure ^âstro `nâ_âsa_â? ^âska ^jâšaa˜ sta_âsa. [K] You know Âstro up from the Upper Community? That was the Jâshis'.
[GU] `gřom, ^â·ki `pitikal, ^âta_Tikoaň vik âmna `Sâŋe sta ^âmo sta ^niSon `vâre âmna ^gita sta, eTa `piTa˜_to `âi ^â·kü. ^křâmâa deš bulâ `pitikal ^pâ˜uru ^křâmâa deš `nire ^â·kü `e to˜ ^bâbardeš, kunta `nâ˜i â? ^bâbarkřom bâlla, ^bâria˜ bu to˜, `to˜ bâlla. ^bâbardeš suara, ^křâmâa deš, ^křumâa sta. ^křâmâa deš `pitikal ^břâkom ^pâ˜uruk e ^niSo_âsa ^âske ŋe ^křâmâa deš kunta. `iâni, ^přâkumâa to˜, kunta `nâ˜i â? `eTa to˜_to ^přâkumâa to˜_kunta ^â·kü ^i·a ŋe ^křâmâa deš kunta ea˜ âska, ^âmkioa˜ sta âska ´muqâddâsota sta, `to˜ bâlla, âmki, ´mâzhâbi to˜. ^âska, ^křumâa_âsi, ´estirom křumâa sta de `kula_âi `nâ˜i â? âska `jukuřoa sta ^âska de e, ´muqâddâs jukuř_âsa. ^křumâa e `jukuř ^křumâa, `ea di ^âska `vâa kSeati, âsa `nâ˜i â? `lâ·kâ, ^pâ˜uň suara, ´râbbâno_â suara, `oali, `jukuř, ´muqâddâs jukuř, ^âska de, `disaňi_âsa. `ea xudâi, ^imo mânšoa˜ sta `disaňi_âsa. `jukuř_âsa. `suara, `moc âi. `giS bulâ, suara `mone bulâ, `vâre âmna `kâca, ^âmki de, ^âmkioa˜ de `tü źâňanša `tua streastâa `nâ˜i â? [GU] There all the way into Piti Valley there are communities and the remains of ancient houses, etc., on some of the ridges there. For instance, Křâmâa Village, up above Piti Valley, Křâmâa Village, and downstream in one place called Bâri Village, right? That must have been their Bâri Community, the place where the bâris were. Bâri Village. And Křâmâa Village was Křumâi's place. Upwards away from the village of Piti Valley there's a cultivated area that they call Křâmâa Village. That is, they call it Křumâi's Place, right? There are some places they call Křumâi's Place; for that one there they say křâmâa deš. Uh, it must have been their sacred place -- those religious places. There was Křumâi – they used to call it Mercy-Pleading Křumâi's [place], right? That woman's -- she was a holy woman. Křumâi, a woman, Křumâi. Another -- she [Křumâi] was lower, right? -- like, higher, divine, important woman, a holy woman, was Disaňi. One of our peoples' gods was Disaňi; she was a woman. The rest were males, for instance, Gish and Mone, and whoever else. You know them all; you've written them down, right?
[RS] `suara, âmki ^binio de, `šo mânša ^â·ki `kombřom `âćto˜_to de, ^âsi_â? [RS] Regarding the Binio, were they there when your people came to Kom Community?
[GU] ^binio ^Sâŋe ste âi. ^Sâŋe oastâa. ^binio ^Sâŋe oastâa. `ou˜. ^binio ^Sâŋe oastâa; `cok mânša âi, ^jâmco je ^binio e. ^âmki de ^binio `bun ste oastâa_kunta, `bun kor di_âsala bo, ^jâmco `jâm ste oastâa_kunta. [GU] The Binio were there from long before. They came before. Yes; the Binio came before; they are few people, the Jâmjos and the Binios. They say the Binios came from Bun, wherever Bun is. And the Jâmcos came from Jâm.
[RS] ^jâmâc. [RS] jamâc.
[GU] `â? [GU] Huh?
[RS] ^jâmâc, ste. ^â·ki `vâagal poar. [RS] From Jamâch. There in Vâi Valley.
[GU] ^jâmoc nom_âsa_`ou˜. [GU] Yes, there's a name jâmoc.
[K] `vâi mi `âi e ca. `vâi mi `âi ca. `štrak di gija_kula_âsamiš. ^jâmcoa˜ ŋe `štrak di gija_kula_âsamiš suara, ^âmna, `vâi âi. [K] They're really just Vâis! There're really just Vâis. Even now we say so. Even now we say that they're Vâis.
[RS] `âsal viri de ´jâmâco_kula âi, ^â·kiste ... [RS] The original word used to be jamâco, then ...
[GU] `ou˜, `jâm, `jo bi·sa, `drea ^jâmco bi·sa. `gi☠^ina ^imo viri to, ^zândor hârf to, `ni teti bi bo ^âska, ce, `jam buna. [GU] Yes, it became jâm jo; later it became jâmco. In our language, if it follows a voiced letter, a c just becomes j.
[RS] `jam buna `ou˜. [RS] Yes, it becomes j.
[GU] ^zândor hârf to `ni teti bi bo. [GU] If it's following a voiced letter.
[RS] `ou˜ `ou˜, ^i·a_âsa ca. [laugh]. [RS] Yes, yes. That's it! [laugh]
`suara âmki ^binio de, ^gija bo de âmki, ^jâšaa˜ meS, `e·por bunâsi_â? ^â·ki vel to. So then, if it's as you say, were the Binios living together with the Jâshis at that time?
[GU] `ou˜, âmki, `ou˜. ^âmki, ^âmki, `cok âi `nâ˜i â? ^binio je ^jâmco e. ^turća˜ gřom âi ^âmkioa˜. [GU] Yes. But they were few people, the Binios and the Jâmcos. They had small communities.
^binio ^âmna ^nüštruk ^biliuk ^âro_âsâ mma_kunta ^âmki ^biliuk ^ârvor vo, ^biliuk ^kâTavo, ^âmki de, e ^purjik di_âsa, ^âskoa `kum â? `â? They say that the Binios were at first very rich. They were very wealthy and very powerful. There's also a story; shall I tell it? Huh?
âska ^purjik_âsa ^âmki ^gija, ^âmkioa˜ `drea, ^âluća˜ mišto˜_to, ^kilâř meS âluća˜ mišistâa. ^kilâř meS. `voTa˜ meS mišanta `nâ˜i â? ^âluća˜. ^âmkioa˜ ^ârvor to cae˜, ^biliuk, `pü˜ bâlla bo ^â·kiste ca âmki ^kilâř, `kâa di ^âluć kummiš `âćaň âmna ^kilâř meS mi mišammo kti, ^kilâř meS âluća˜ mišistâa_kunta ^â·kiste ^âmkioa˜, âmki ^kilâř meS ^âluća˜ miši sta bi bo ^â·ki_kâřa to suara, ^xudâia ^mâSa_kâřa·sa âmkioa˜ suara `mřora ^mâSa kti ca ^âmki, ^mâkař_kâřastâa. ^ârâkpâkpâk kum gustâa_kuna_â? The story is, they said later, that when they were playing quoits, they played with cheeses. With cheeses. They play quoits with stones, right? -- round stones. In their wealth, when they became very predominant, then they said, "Let's make those cheeses our quoits; come on, let's just play quoits with these cheeses," and they played quoits with cheeses, they say. So then if they would have to play quoits with those cheeses -- after they did it there -- God got angry at them. The Lord got angry, and he turned them into monkeys. And they went off saying "Ârâkpâkpâk."
[K] ^ârâkpâkpâk. `šâbâs. o ^i·a viri `ü tâřa·sa. ^ârâkpâkpâk. [K] "Ârâkpâkpâk". Bravo. That's the word that they set down. "Ârâkpâkpâk".
[GU] ^ârâkpâkpak kum, âmki ^mâkař. `Co vianâso mma. [GU] Those monkeys went off saying, "Ârâkpâkpâk." They were shouting it, I'm told.
[K] ppppp [labial trill]. o ^i·a di kâřa·sa. ^i·a di kâřa·sa. [K] "ppppp" [Bronx cheer]. They also said that. They also said that.
[RS] `ou˜, ^i·a viri de ^âni mi bi·sa, `nâ˜i â? `tua ^bâbdi âćna? [RS] Yes, that story happened just here, right? Do you remember?
[K] `mâtâ kša. `mâtâ kša. ^bâbdi âćna. [K] Wait, wait. I remember.
`o˜š_kša_o? `e·por di_kâřa·si ^ârâkpâkpâk. `bi to ca, `ü te to˜_to `ppppp. `ppus de `strak di_kunta binio. ^vâllâla bi bo, `ppppp. ^binio vâllâla bi bo ne? ^ü te to˜_to ca, `mâSa bi bo, ^pppp. `pppp. `štrak di kunta. ^ârâkpâkpâk. kti ca, `pppp. ^kâřa·sa_kunta_o? ^âmkioa˜. [laugh]. Look here, will you? They said that along with "ârâkpâkpâk". Whenever it happened, at the end there would be a "ppppp". Even today the people in Binio Community do it. Whenever they are talking, "ppppp." Whenever a Binio is talking, you know? At the end if he is angry, "ppppp." Even now they do it. After "ârâkpâkpâk," they said "ppppp," so they say! [laugh]
[RS] [laugh] ^mâkař bistâa, `kša_â? [RS] [laugh] So they became monkeys, huh?
[GU] âmna ^gita sta viri, ^mâkař bistâa_kunta. [GU] It's like that. They say they became monkeys.
[RS] ^â·kiste kâa bistâa. [RS] Then what became of them?
[GU] ^â·kiste `püs bistâa. `püs bistâa. [GU] Then they disappeared. They disappeared.
[RS] suara âmki ^pâta bi sta de ^mâkař `nâ bi sta_âsi `nâ˜i â? [RS] So the ones who remain were ones that didn't become monkeys, huh?
[GU] `â? `ou˜. ^âmna suara ^pâta bi sta `kor âar ste di_âsala bo ^imo `kâa di ^źâňammo. ^âmki ^biliuk ^Sâŋe ^gita sta, ^purjik vilânta. ^âmki `kâca `kuiu ... [GU] Huh? Yes. The ones who remain, wherever they might have come from; what do we know? Those are very ancient kinds of stories that they tell. Whoever and wherever ...
[K] `pšol, `pšol ^âluća˜ mišistâi. `pšol ^âluća˜ mišistâi, âmki `pšol sta de ^mâkař bistâi; `pšol âmki ^âluća˜ mišala. ^mâkař biti `gustâi âmki. ^âmki ^â·kiste ca, `kâca di ^â·kiste ^břâkom âćla bâlla, `kâca `nâ˜i â? âmki ^mâkař bi sta. ^mâkař bi sta. o ^âmki, âska ^âmce˜ viria de `pe u teti ca, ^ârâkpâkpâk ^â·ki_kâřa·sa, ^břâkom âćti_kâřa·sa âmkioa˜ ^binořm âćti. `pšol, `pšol ste. [K] In the stable -- they played quoits in the stable. They played quoits in the stable. The ones in the stable became monkeys, those quoits players in the stable. They became monkeys and went off. And then some might have come back to the village, and some not, right? Those who became monkeys. The ones who became monkeys. They put aside their own language and said "Ârâkpâkpâk" there. They came back to the village and said it, back in Binio Community, coming from the stable.
[GU] `pšol, stoa˜ ina, ^kilâř meS ^âluća˜ mišistâa. [GU] The ones in the stable were playing quoits with cheeses.
[K] ^â·ki ^břâkom âćti ca ^ârâkpâkpâk kâřa to ca, `ü te to˜_to ca˜, `ppppp. ^i·ea di kunâsâ mma. `štrak ^â·ki ^binio âbdaloan_kila ^imoa źâňa to˜_to mi âmki ^purda bilio˜, âmki, ^binio. ^vâllâla bi to `ü tâřa to ^mâSa bi to eTa vor `kâa? `di. `Co Co `nâ přenta_â? `pppp. `pppp. ^i·ea ^biliuk kunâsi. `utra_o e ^lâtri kâřa·sa âmkioa˜_kârek, ^imo enâsamiš! [laugh]. ^kâřa·sa ^Sâŋe âmnoa˜. ina ^ârâkpâkpâk to `ü te to˜_to de `ppppusa de_kâřa·sa âmnoa˜. [laugh] [K] They came back there to the village, and after they said "Ârâkpâkpâk" at the end, "ppppp". They would say that, too, we hear. Now Binio Abdullâh Khân's people there, even since we've known them, those old Binios, they -- whenever they would talk, at the end if they were angry sometimes -- you know, when they're shouting at each other --"pppp." "pppp." They used to say it a lot. We would say to each other, "Son of a bitch, they let one!" [laugh] They did that in the old days. At the end of the "Ârâkpâkpâk," they said "ppppp." [laugh]
[GU] âmna ^gita sta purjik `âi? [GU] These are the kind of stories there are.
[RS] `i˜a de ^gita sta purjik ^âni sâŋâa·sa `nâ˜i â? [RS] I heard the same sort of story here, right?
[K] `care ^âni ^üćüN purduk di sâip, ^âni mi·sol ^âni, ^gâmuTia˜ je suara ^mi·sol, i·a ^âluć_kti, ^kilâřa˜ ^Târe˜ kti di ca, ^âni mišti ^pâSoa˜ âmki, `Gârak bâ kti e ^purjik ^âni, `care `ćkino purduka di vilâio ^ine to. [K] Up here an old Urtsun man -- up there Old Man Ćkino told this one [Rich] a story also, like, here they made quoits out of wheat chappaties and targets out of cheese, and after they played here, in the evening they were drowned.
[GU] `ou˜. `âr ´mântiqâ to ^tâGir kunta, purjik. ^purjika˜ sta âska, ^i·a ^tâGir buna âska. ^âmki, ^bârdošt, ´muxtâlif buna `nâ˜i â? ^purjika˜ ca˜ ^â·kiste âmki, `ea purjik mi, `ca mân·tiqâa˜_to, `küř küř, râqâm, ^âska ne? `küř küř, ^âska bi sta buna. âska _`âin ^âska ^purjik `nâ buna, `âr mân·tiqâ to âska, `ea purjik mi, `cuk qi·sam buna `nâ˜i â? `küř, ´mân·tiqâa˜_to `küř, âmna ^mânša, ^âmce˜ sta `fi·kar meS ^âmce˜ sta ^âske meS ^âmna `kâa ^sâŋâa·sa bo ^âmkioa˜ ^uto muTa kti ca☠`gâati `vâr râqâm_kti i·poanta. [GU] Yes, in every region they change a story. The stories' -- that -- it changes. They become removed and separate, right? Stories -- then they -- a single story in several regions has separate forms; it -- right? -- it becomes separated. The story doesn't remain the same; in each region a single story becomes however many kinds, right? In separate regions these separate peoples take them and make them into something else, with their own thoughts and their own whatever; whatever they've heard, they make them longer or shorter.
[RS] âmki ^jâša `kor ste oa·sala bo? [RS] Where might the Jâshis have come from?
[GU] ^jâja, `oasta imo de `egek_kti `kuiu `i˜a, de `kuiu `küt_kti, ^jâja oasa=stoa˜, ^âmnoa˜ `küt_kti `küt_kti `küt_kti, `i˜a ^âni, ^imo bâkul `küt_kti `kâa `Ti˜c `nâ buna ^Sâŋe ste ânü âi, kunta, imo mânša. ^Sâŋe ste âmna, ´vâtâni ^âsli, ´vâtâni mânša, [GU] The Jâjis' origin we – I've asked around so much about the Jâjis' origins here in our country, but there's not a clue. Our people say that are here from old times. From old times they are the original inhabitants ...
[K] ^âska de `nâ mi bi bo `kâa ^mâNanta ^â·kiste ca ^â·kiste, âska, ´si·kândâr sta ^saňi mânša ^pârea ^pâta bistâi kti ... [K] If that's not just what happened, then what do they say? They say then that Alexander's army people remained all over ...
[GU] `nâ˜i, ^âmna `vâre âi. ina `dre, âmna, ´tâqiqot kula mânšoa˜ `vâre mânšoa˜, ^bâre âtaň âćla mânšoa˜ ina, ´nâsâriâp pta·sa `nâ˜i â? `âmna, ´ünoni âi kti. suara, `xudi ^imo mânša, ^jâša, ^âsli ´vâtâni mânša âi ^âmki `kor ste oasa=sta, `Ti˜c `nâ âi_kunta. ^jâša je âmna ^přâsü˜ e. ^přâsü˜ de ^âsli vâtâni mânša âi âni, ´nuriston, ^âmki, suara, `kuiu ste oasa=sta, ^imo sta mânša `Ti˜c `nâ vo âi, ^âmna de ^inâar, ina ^luGât o˜š_kti, ^jâ·ša kti, ^jâ·ša kti, `jâš de ´ˁârâbi viri ^saňi ŋe_kunta. `jâš. ba ´qåriå-e `jaš-e ´sikandar-e-^azam âmna ´nâvi·sindâgon âmna ^viri `dre, `io sta fi·kar meS, ^âmki streastâa. ^âni ^âska bi bo di ^jâ·ša, ´ˁârâbi kâlimâ_âsa ´ˁârâbi kâlimâ ^âska vel to, `dre `kâa, viri bâlla bo. [GU] No they're someone else. Later, these research people, other people who came from outside, gave this opinion, that they are Greeks. But for our own people, the Jâshis are the original inhabitants, and they say they have no idea where the Jâshis came from. The Jâshis and the Prâsü˜. The Prâsü˜ are also original inhabitants here in Nuristân, and wherever they came from our people have no idea. On the one hand some people have looked at this word and made it into jâ·ši, and they say jaš is Arabic for "army." jaš. "Ba qâriâ-e jaš-e sikandar-e-azam." These writers wrote these words later, with their own thinking. Here if that's the case, jâ·ši is an Arabic word, and an Arabic word at that time -- then later whatever might have happened?
[RS] âmki ^kâta `care ^břâkamâTol kâta de, `ktivi ste oastâi `nâ˜i â? âska `gul ^Sâŋe ^âmkioa˜ `nâ oasou˜ `ku to billi. [RS] The Kâtas up in Brakamatol, they came from Ktivi, right? Before they came, who did their country belong to?
[K] ^kâtoa˜ nâ oasou˜ ^kâtakal `ku to billi_kuna_o! [K] He's asking who Kâtagal belonged to before the Kâtas came!
[GU] ^â·ki de ^jâša âi. [GU] There were Jâshis there too.
[RS] ^jâša âi â? nâ˜i. ^bilio˜. [RS] Were they Jâshis, or Chitralis?
[K] ^jâša âi. ^bilio˜ `nâ âi. [K] They were Jâshis. They weren't Chitralis.
[RS] ^â·ki ^tricakal di kâca bâlla. [RS] Who might have been there in Three Upper Valleys?
[K] ^i·a `gi☠^ćuňi gul_âsa. ^ćuňi gul âi. ^pSuvor `cama, `kâa `nâ gřom âi; `ca pâcuřuk gřom ^kâtakal ^pSuvor_âsa. ^pSuvor. ^i·a, `pSa vor. `pSa vor. `pSa. `pSe sta `vor. ^pSavor. `kâi_âsala bo e `pSa vor. ^i·a ´âxeri gřom_âsa. `caň de `štrak ^imoa źâňa to˜_to `gřom_kâřâ ca. ^ina vâllâna. ^ina ^jâša âi `nâ_kunša_â? `caň ^jâša âi. `dre ^jâno dârea˜ `io pâmüc âmna ^břâźoa˜ `Suc `nâ_kâřo? ^â·ki mi, ^jâšpurduk `io nâřik ^dâdü âsâ mma ca. [K] That was just an empty valley; they're empty valleys. From Pshuvor on up there are no villages. The uppermost village in Kâta Valley is Pshuvor. Pshuvor. It's pSa vor. pSa [‘shaman']. pSe sta vor [‘Shaman's Turn']. pSavor. Whatever it is -- a pSa vor. It's the last village. Now in our lifetime communities were built further up. That's what he's talking about. This is where the Jâshis are, isn't that what you're saying? Further up there are Jâshis. Later, you know when Jâno's Boys had a fratricidal war among themselves? I hear there were one or two old Jâshis there then.
[RS] e ^kâtkuřea ^Sâŋe ^â·ki `Skurikal, ^â·ki poar de ^bilioa˜ sta âsi kti vilâiom. [RS] A Kâta fellow told me that in the old days Crooked Valley belonged to the Chitralis.
[GU] ^i·âar ^â·ki `kuiu, âmki_^gâbur tuare˜ de `âi. [GU] There are some nearby there on the other side in Gabur.
[RS] ^â·ki ^bilio˜ jenastâi suara ^imoa ^câleastâi kti suara ... [RS] He said that there were Chitralis living there, and that they made them move away, and ...
[K] ^kâSik ^kâSik iela_âi, ^kâSik ^kâSik. ^kâSik ^kâSik iela_âi. ^bilioa˜ gul `nâ_âsa. `o˜š_kša_o? ^mišoa˜ ^pârea_kunta `nâ˜i â? ^kâSik ^kâSik iela_âi. `vü âćti `ca u tiati ca, ^bilio˜ de ^âni ^biliuk qom bo `nâ˜i â? ^gâbur ste poar `pü giti ca ^mi·sol, ^kâSati, ^kâSti, ^âni ŋe âvařastâa ^âni ŋe. ^âni ŋe. ^bilio˜ de ^vidařiâ bo mâgâm `koma˜ vidařeaâ. ^gujara di ^vidařiâ bo `koma˜ vidařeaâ. ^iâqin_kša qozi sâip. [K] They would rob each other. Robbing back and forth. They would rob each other. It wasn't the Chitralis' country. Look at that! They're telling lies all over, aren't they? They would rob each other. They would come over and stay up there; the Chitralis were a big tribe here, right? They went over from Gabur and robbed them and brought it back for use here. For here. If the Chitralis were afraid, it was the Kom who scared them. If the Gujars were afraid, it was the Kom who scared them. Be assured of that, Mr. Judge.
[GU] ^pârea âar ^âtam_kâći·sa `dre, ´âfGoniston ´musalmon bo `nâ˜i â? ´musalmon bi to ca☠^â·kiste, e, ^pucći sa pTipâar ´musalmon bâ? de ^âmki ^ˀislom, `peň, ^ˀislom ^tâbliq bi to. [GU] From all sides they have aimed in at us, later when Afghânistân became Muslim, right? After they became Muslims -- then it was a hundred years afterwards that they became Muslims, right? After Islam was propagated from beyond.
[K] ^qozi sâip ina `ea kuT viri, ^vâňa to˜ `ke nâ_kunša ^Siŋaro kti tü. `ca bâgul mânša, ina ^pâmuři piT, ^mânše to, ^âta_pili☠oasâ? o ^i·ea vilâv_â? [K] Mr. Judge. I want to ask you one thing up front; why don't you say it, eloquently. How many countries' peoples have come to invade the people of Clay Ridge [epithet for Kom Community]? Please tell us that.
[GU] `sunti ^pâ·puNor mânša mi de ^âtam oaźiâ. ^âmki ^ˀislom oasi to, `küře˜, ´nuriston, ´mu·salmon `nâ bâ `nâ˜i â? `sunti ^pâ·puNor mânša, âmki ´pâSâ·i di mu·salmon bâ. ´pâSâ·i di mu·salmon bâ, ^â·küste ^âmkioa˜ `Suc ^imo sta, `püre `ktivi ^řâmgal poar ´pâSâ·ia˜ meS, `okuNia˜ meS, ´lâGmânia˜ meS suara, ^â·ki ^Suc ^âmkioa˜ ^â·kü ubajeao. suara, ^â·küste ^inâara, ^imo to de `okuNi di ^bilio˜ di, ´bâdâxšân di `sunti ^pâ·puNor ^âtam gustâa ^âni gija ^Gâzo kti, ^âmna ^jâňi bo, ^šâ·it, ^imo, ^Gåzi bummiš, ^sâvop buna ´jânâti bummiš_kti, ^pâ·puNor sta `sunti imo sta mânšoa˜_to liSTistâi. ^tâqribân, ^âska `cuk buna? `dić, `dić sât sa. ^imo sta ^mânšoa˜, meS `Suc kâřa·sa âmkioa˜. ^âtam u teastâa, ´muHâ·sirâ_kâřastâa ^imo mânša `dić sât sa. `dić sât sa `pTipâar ^âni ´mu·salmon bâ `nâ˜i â? `dić sât sa ^imo sta, ^mânša ^âtam u teastâi o âni. ´muHå·sirâ âi. ^âte˜ ^ânü mi, ^bâźü i·peati `vâre ^bâ·sano, i·peati, suara, ^âmce˜ ´pâidâvor âmcati ^âmce˜ sta `ptul âšti ^âmce˜ Sâřoa˜ meS ^âmce˜ sta ^camdramoa˜ meS, `kudüm âmce˜ sta ^âpše˜_to, `pšati, ^kâćo ^biliuk âšala_âi, ^kârmor ^biliuk kula_âi; ^Sâřa mâti ^âno, `źu, ^ânua, [xx]. ^âmki `Suc kâřastâa, ^âmki, `dru štor vo âi. `koNa˜ viati, ^pâSuc iela_âi `nâ˜i â? `gek_kti. ^cari přâćuk kti `io gestuk_gestuk, ^přâćuk, ^kulcâa˜ i·peati ^amkioa˜, ^âtam_âTleati. ^â·kiste, ^mâcaâar sta ^liliok `sunti, ^bâre pü, ^pâla bula_âi, ^pâla, `gul to ^â·kiste `cür ela_âi `giti ^bâjüř giti, `dir giti, ^bâTxel to vik, `giti `ni giti, ^kunař, `ni_Tikti `viati `giti ^âmkioa˜, ´musalmona˜ jâňati ^âćla_âi, ^âni `mol kâroala_âi, ^â·kiste ^âmki `nom vo âi ^âmkioa˜, ´båduri, ^âmki `sunti `tua streastâa `nâ˜i â? ^âska, `dić sât sa, suara ^imo mânša ^âtam u teastâi_o! ^ˀislom oasi to ste biti ou˜. ^âni di ´muHå·sirâ, ^âtam u teastâa. âmki `dić sât sa `pTipâara `dre â·kiste ina, ´musalmon, [GU] All the peoples around us have attacked us. When Islam came, only Nuristân did not become Islamic, right? All the people around, even the Pashais became Muslims. Even the Pashais became Muslims. Then our people over on the Ktivi and Willow Valley side had a war there with the Pashais, with the Afghâns, with the Laghmânis; they started the war there. And then on this side the Afghâns and the Chitralis and Badakhshân and everybody around us invaded, They say to make a campaign here and become holy warriors, and if they get killed, they become martyrs, because it's a pious act and they'll go to heaven. So all the surrounding people attacked our people. For approximately -- how long has it been? -- twelve hundred years they made war with our people. Our people were boxed in and beseiged for twelve hundred years. Twelve hundred years later they became Muslims here, right? For twelve hundred years our people were boxed in right here. They're beseiged. Right here in the midst, making cloaks, making clothing, wearing their own apparel, planting their own fields, with their own livestock, with their own tools, their own work, grinding in their mills, they would plant a lot of millet; they would make a lot of ritual animal sacrifices, and slaughter livestock and [consume] the meat, milk, and ghee. They made war, and had bows and quivers of arrows. They would go to war shooting arrows, right? Like that. They would make raiding crackers, little crackers, cookies this size, stuff them in their clothes. Then all the young males would stand guard on the perimeter, guards for the country. Then they would go on raids; they would go to Bajaur, and Dir, all the way to BaT Khel; or they would go down and reach Kunar and strike and kill those Muslims and come back. Here they would get war crests and become famous for their heroism. You've written all these things down, right. For those twelve hundred years they had our people boxed in! Since Islam had arrived, yes. They were beseiged and boxed in. Later after those twelve hundred years, this Muslim ...
[K] `ea kuT viri ko `o˜ di ko `i, ko ^inea, ko ^inea pi·kar kšaň â? ko. `kom. ^caroa˜_go `nâ˜i â? `kom. ^i·e to ste `pâaň, ^imo viri vo `cuk âi bo, ^řâmgal ^kulem, ^puSol o, `gek kum âćti ^přâsü˜ `gek_kti âćti ^kâta `nâ âi â? `kâa ^imo viri vo. ´nuristoni viri `nâ_kunta_â? `to ´pâSâ·i. ^kâmkuřa ^kâla dükšül vo_âsa_kâřoš `nâ˜i â? `nüške˜ ^inea. `dić sât sol, ^imo meS, `koN ^bâja_âšti, âmna ^mânša `kâakti ^câloasta bulâ kti `ve_piliâ˜, oa·sala_â? višanam o˜ć. `o˜ `gi☠`i˜ viri ina `egek to ^pâři·sa mi ou˜. `štrak di, imoa kâćanta. `štrak di kâćanta. `štrak di kâćanta. `ou˜. `kombřom ste `püs bi to, ina `ketta `kombřom sta ina, ^kâmaston, ^kâmkuřoa˜ sta i·a `oala_to˜, `je to˜, [K] Think about this one thing, why don't you. Separate out the Kom, right? From there on further out, however many people who have our language, in Willow Valley, in Kulem, in Waterfall, and keep coming further to the Prâsü˜, and keep coming to, you know, the Kâta? You know, those who have our language. What they call Nuristâni language, right? Out to the Pashai. The Kom are a bellicose people, as this one [the Judge] said to you a little while ago, right? I think that for 1200 years they've had their arrows knocked, for us, wondering how they could get these people to move away, and they probably invaded, right? I've just on my own arrived at the conclusion that they're still after us. They're still after us. They're still after us. Yes. If they [the Kom] would only disappear from Kom Community, whoever is from Kom Community, from Kâmastân, the great place, the seat of the sons of the Kom ...
[GU] `kombřom sta `nom ^Sâŋe ^kâmaston, `lâalua˜_to, [GU] Kom Community's name in the old days was Kâmaston, in the songs.
[K] ^kâmaston. ´kâmaston. ´kâmaston de âska `joi bo `nâ˜i â? `koma˜ sta `ston `koma˜ sta _´ârom+go. `je to˜. `ou˜. ^âsli nom ^i·a_âsa. [K] Kâmaston. Kâmaston. Kâmaston was the place, right? The Koms' stân, the Koms' sanctuary, seat. Yes. That's the original name.
[GU] `ea ^âska, e ^tâtik to_âsa `nâ˜i â? ^kâmaston `ćit gřunsio kti `kâakti_âsa bo e `lâalu. [GU] It's in a song, right? It goes, "kâmaston ćit gřunsio" [‘fertilizer piled up in Kâmastân', implying that they were very rich in livestock] -- however that song was.
[K] ^kâmaston `ćit gřunsio kti_âsa ^kâmaston mi·sol â `xuda, i·a, ^sutrum_sur [xx] `nâ bi bo `mřoŋ `mřeli buna. ^i·a di ^kâmaston_to ´e·šorâ_âsa ca. [K] That's just how it is: "kâmaston ćit gřunsio." Kâmaston, like, for example, if it wasn't [xx] in Sutrum's Pond, the markhor doe would die. [words unclear] That was a symbol of Kâmaston, too.
[GU] ^kâmaston sta_âska ^tâtik_âsa_o! ^tâtik_âsa. i·a ^tâtik to âmna, `io sta `nom `kombřom sta ^kâmaston_âsa. ^Sâŋe sta ^lâalua˜_to. [GU] That's the song about Kâmaston! That's the song. In that song Kom Community's own name is Kâmaston, in the songs of the old times.
[RS] `nüške˜_âmki ^mânšoa˜ ŋe, `berkuT nima, `kâa nom tenâsaš? [RS] A little while ago what was the name you were calling the people from Ber Tower on downriver?
[K] `ou˜, `mâtâ kša. `štrak_â, `ea de ´sindâni_kummiš ^nâ˜i â? ´sindâni. `okuNi viri_âsa. ´sindâni. i·a ´sindâni `kuiu vik_âsa bo, ^â·kü de ^inea `nom vilâioš; [K] Yes, wait a minute. Now we call them Sindani, right? Sindani. It's Pushto. Sindani. This one [the Judge] told you the names down to however far this Sindani extends.
[GU] ^i·a `okuNi viri_âsa! [GU] It's Pushto.
[K] `o˜ `kâa di ^mâNnam, `okuNi viri_âsa mi de ^kâřa·sa i˜a ca. ^â·kü vik ina ´sindâni `nâ_âsa_â? i·a ´sindâni to vik ^inea ^vilâioš. `kâakti vilâioš `o˜š_kša_â? ^inea vilâioš mi·sol ina ´ni·šâgom. ina ^mi·sol ^bârgom. ina suara ^mi·sol ^â·kiste, ^âtre, `do gřom. ^dâŋgom. o `gek_kti, ^â·kü i·a ^â·kü cama ste ŋe, ^âmki ´sindâni_kunta. ^imo viri, ^inea, ^qozi sâip, ^vilâioš, ^âmna nom âi. ^kunař_kâřa bo ca sâip, `lâ·kâ `nire `štrak i·a ^kunâř `cama, `ketta imo sta i·a ^zilâ_âsa bo, o ^i·e düŋe ca, `e·uře ca ^kunař nom_temmiš. o, ´sindâni_kâřa bo ca `care `ca u tianta. [K] What am I saying; I just said it's Pushto. Down to there --you know this Sindani? -- he told you the extent of that Sindani. Look what he told you, OK? He told you, for example, Nishagom. For example, Bârgom. And then, for example, inward, Mountain Community. Dângom. Just like that, for that [area] from there on upwards they say sindani. This one, Mr. Judge, told you what these names are in our language. If you say "Kunar," then like from down there at that [town of] Kunar on upwards, whatever is in our province, we call that whole area "Kunar." If you say "Sindani," it [refers to] what remains in the upper area.
[GU] âmki `strak `dre, ^âmnoa˜, râvoc kâřa·sa, `dre. `okuNi ^â·kü sta ina ^âs·mor ulus·uoli, ^ina bi to ste pâama âmki `küř, `küře˜ ^âmce˜, ^âs·mor ulus·uoli to ste, ´sindâni, âsamiš kunta. [GU] Now later they created their own custom. The Afghâns from there, ever since there has been the Âsmâr District and they've been from their own separate district of Âsmâr, they've said that they are Sindani.
[RS] ^â·ki, âska ´sindâni poar manšoa˜ sta `kâca ^tårix źâňala bunta_â? â·ki. [RS] Do you think any of the Sindani people know their own history there?
[K] ^purduk mi purduk `kâca ^Sâŋe sta `kâa `âćti jena sta, `kuiu ^câlpanoš bi sta `kâa ^źâňanâlla bo ^źâňalâ? `kuiu ste `oasa=sta `kâa ^lâtri `kâca di ^âmki_âsala bo. [K] Certain old men from the old days who came and settled or who were run out from somewhere might be knowing something about where they came from and why and who they might be.
[GU] âmki `okuNi â? [GU] You mean those Afghâns?
[RS] `okuNi bulâ, âmki ^Sâŋe ^â·ki ^bârgom bulâ, ^âmki `kâca jenastaâ? [RS] Afghâns, for example, or those there in Bârgom. Who lived there?
[GU] ^âmki, ^âmki to˜_to `egek, ^imo mânša âi. ^Sâŋe. ^â·ki poar jenastâa_kunta `nâ˜i â? ^dâŋgom, `do gřom,^ imo mânšoa˜ sta viri_âsa. [GU] In those places there were our people. In the old times. They say they used to live down there, right? In Dângom, do gřom, in our peoples' language.
[RS] `kom sta_âsi_â? nâ˜i. `vâre nuristoni sta. [RS] Was it the Kom's, or other Nuristânis'?
[K] `kom sta. `kom sta. `kom sta. [K] The Koms'. The Koms'. The Koms'.
[GU] ^imo, `kom sta. `kom sta. `gek_kti `âćti ^gija_kâřa·sa. [GU] It was our Kom's [place]. It's said that they came that way.
[K] `niň, ^sâma sâma gula˜ `štrak di ^imo sta nom_to tenta ca. `štrak ^imo de, ^â·kü ^i·a, ´jâlolâ_âsa `nâ˜i â? `uruku, ina, ^bâcak bârmuk sâlom din, ^bâcak bârmuk sta. ^bâcak bârmuk sta, âska `pšola, ^bârmuk bânDâ kti `strak di nom_tenta âmki. `toa˜, ^âmkioa˜, ^âmkioa˜ mi `Ti˜c âi. ^âmkioa˜ `Ti˜c âi. [K] Downriver there are still some valleys that they still call with our names. Now, there's Jalâla there, right? A little way up from there -- [you know] Salâm Din, son of Bârmuk, son of Bâchik -- for the stable of [his father] Bârmuk, son of Bâchik, they now call it bârmuk bânDâ [‘Bâmuk's Stable,' in Pushto]. Therefore, they are aware of it. They're aware of it.
[GU] `nire ^â·ki cama de ^âni `kombřom âćti `ü_přâsina to ^âni ^gřâmkaTa `ü teti ^âni bi to ^ânü ste `niň, `Sor_âsa imo mânšoa˜ sta. `nire ´jâlolâ cama, ina `gul, ^imo mânšoa˜ sta `Sor_âsa. ^Sâřoa˜ ^źâ˜vor `ni gâati ^â·ki gâala_âi. ^â·kiste ^vâsdor `ca_âveti ^pâso˜ gâala_âi. ^źâ˜vor i·a `nire ´jâlolâ vik `Sor_âsa, ^imo mânšoa˜ sta. `peň di `veň di. `gek_kti caâ˜, `dre âmna ^gujara_oastâa ^â·küste `dre âmna ^kâca `okuNi oastâa, ^kâca âmna ^gita sta, ^mânša âćti ^â·ki niň i·a `gul to jeti, ^â·küste, ´âbodi kti ^kâca `ptul_kti ^kâca `kâa kti `gek gek_kti `gek gek, `dre âska, âmki ^imo mânšoa˜_to ste, âmki `gul to ^âmki, `veň peň bistâa. `gek kum âmki, `okuNi ^biliuk âi de ^imo `caruk kum `caruk kum `caruk kum gâati `strak ^imo ^âni ^âtam u tea·samiš, `ca pacuřuk. `berkuT di, pâřistâi. `berkuT u, ^imoa, `ca u teati, `püň gul to `veň peň bistâa, ina `ca sa ^âmkioa˜ meS `vik vik buna ^gujaroa˜ meS_â·ki, `tua_âsia˜ â·ki, `kombřom_âsaš ^âmki viri `sustuk `tua `Ti˜c âi. ^i·a de `di, `kâa, ^viri vâllâ sta ^zârur nâ âi. [GU] Ever since our people came upwards from down there and settled in Kom Community and put down the timbers of their houses and have been here, from here on downriver has been our peoples' winter quarters. Down there, from Jalâla on upwards, this valley has been our peoples' winter quarters. In the winter they would take their flocks down there and then in the summer they would bring them up to the mountain pastures. In the winter when they would take their livestock downriver, they would take them there. Then in the summer they would being them up and take them to the mountain pastures. In the winter down to Jalâla is our peoples' winter quarters, on both sides of the river. Later these Gujurs came, and then later some or these Afghâns arrived; some people like that came, and they settled down there in that country, and they cultivated it and made fields and so on and so forth. Later on, from our people -- they became scattered across those valleys. Because the Afghâns are so many, they've kept coming up and coming up and coming up, and now they've boxed us in, in the uppermost area. They've even arrived at Ber Tower. Since they've boxed us in up around Ber Tower, they've taken over the country over and beyond. For the past several years there has been mutual hostility between us and them and the Gujars there. While you were there, when you were in Kom Community, you were aware of all that was going on. It's not necessary to talk again about that.


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First posted 28 Dec. 1997     Last modified 30 June 1999

(Phonemic transcription updated 7 October 2007)

Copyright © 1997-1999 by Richard F. Strand